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Mahatma Gandhi - 100 important events - a timeline

Mahatma Gandhi's life - 100 Important Events

1

1869

Born at Porbandar, Kathiawad, Father: Karamchand Mother: Putlibai

2

1876

Primary schooling in Rajkot

3

1881

Started high school in Rajkot

4

1883

Married to Kasturba

5

1887

Passed matriculation examination at Ahmedabad and entered Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, Kathiawad

6

1891

Sailed from Bombay for England to study law

7

1891 

Returned to India after being called to bar. Began practice of law in Bombay and Rajkot

8

1893

Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer for an Indian firm

9

1893

Faced color discrimination / apartheid

10

 1894

Drafted first petition sent by the Indians to a South African legislature

11

 1894

Organised Natal Indian Congress

12

1896

Returned to India for six months to bring back his wife and two children to Natal

13

 1896

Reached South Africa with family. Was mobbed when he disembarked at Durban for his writings about South Africa when he was in India

14

1899

Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for British in Boer War

15

1901

Moved back to India. Promised to return to South Africa if Indian community needed his services again

16

1901–1902

Attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta, and opened law office in Bombay

17

1902

Returned to South Africa after urgent request from Indian community

18

1903

Opened law office in Johannesburg

19

1904

Established  Indian Opinion, a weekly

20

 1904

Organised Phoenix Settlement near Durban, after reading Ruskin's Unto This Last

21

1906

Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for Zulu "Rebellion"

22

1906 

Took vow of continence for life

23

1906 

First satyagraha campaign in Johannesburg in protest against proposed Asiatic ordinance directed against Indian immigrants in Transvaal

24

1906 

Sailed for England to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary

25

1907

Organised satyagraha against Compulsory Registration of Asians ("The Black Act")

26

1908

Stood trial for instigating satyagraha and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment)

27

1908 

Summoned to consult General Smuts at Pretoria; compromise reached; was released from jail

28

1908 

Attacked and wounded by Indian extremist, Mir Alam, for reaching settlement with Smuts

29

1908 

Second satyagraha campaign began with bonfire of registration certificates after Smuts broke agreement

30

1908 

Arrested for not having certificate, and sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Volksrust jail

31

1909

Sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Volksrust and Pretoria jails

32

1909 

Sailed for England again to present Indians' case

33

1909 

Returned to South Africa, wrote 'Hind Swaraj' on the way

34

1910

Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg

35

1913 

Helped campaign against nullification of marriages not conducted as per Christian rites

36

 1913

Third satyagraha campaign begun by leading "great march" of 2,000 Indian miners from Newcastle across Transvaal border in Natal

37

 1913

Arrested three times in four days  (at Palmford, Standerton, and Teakworth) and sentenced at Dundee to nine months' imprisonment; tried at Volksrust in second trial and sentenced to three months' imprisonment with his European co-workers, Polak and Kallenbach.

38

 1913

Released unconditionally in expectation of a compromise settlement, C.F. Andrews and W.W. Pearson having been sent by Indians in India to negotiate

39

1914

Underwent fourteen days' fast for moral lapse of members of Phoenix Settlement

40

 1914

Satyagraha campaign suspended, with pending agreement between Smuts, C.F. Andrews, and Gandhi, and with ultimate passage of Indian Relief Act

41

 1914

Left South Africa

42

 1914

Organised Indian Ambulance Corps in England

43

1915 

Established Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, near Ahmedabad, and soon admitted an untouchable family. The ashram was moved in 1917 to a new site on Sabarmati River

44

1916

Gave speech at opening of Hindu University at Benares

45

 1917

Led successful satyagraha campaign for rights of peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. Defied an order to leave the area , was arrest at Motihari and tried, but case was withdrawn. Mahadev Desai joined him at Champaran

46

1918

Led strike of mill workers at Ahmedabad. Mill owner agreed to arbitration after his three-day fast (his first fast in India)

47

 1918

Led satyagraha campaign for peasants in Kheda

48

1918 

Attended Viceroy's War Conference  at Delhi and agreed for recruitment of Indians for World War I

49

1919

Rowlatt Act (perpetuating withdrawal of civil liberties for seditious crimes) passed, and first all-India satyagraha campaign conceived

50

1919 

Organised "nation-wide hartal" against Rowlatt Act

51

1919 

Arrested at Kosi near Delhi on way to Punjab and escorted back to Bombay, but never tried

52

 1919

Fasted at Sabarmati for three days in penitence for violence and suspended satyagraha campaign, which he called a “Himalayan miscalculation" because people were not disciplined enough

53

 1919

Became the editor of English weekly, Young India, and Gujarati weekly, Navajivan

54

1920

Elected president of All-India Home Rule League

55

 1920

Successfully urged resolution for  a satyagraha campaign of non-cooperation at Muslim Conference at Allahabad and at Congress sessions at Calcutta and Nagpur

56

1920 

Gave up Kaisar-i-Hind medal. Second all-India satyagraha campaign started

57

 1921

Presided at bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.

58

1921 

Resolved to wear only a loin-cloth in devotion to Khadi and simplicity

59

 1921

Fasted at Bombay for five days because of communal rioting following visit of Prince of Wales

60

1921 

Mass Civil Disobedience. Gandhi invested with "sole executive authority" on behalf of Congress.

61

1922

Civil disobedience movement is suspended following violence at Chauri Chaura and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli

62

1922 

Arrested at Sabarmati in charge of sedition in Young India. Pleaded guilty at the "great trial" in Ahmedabad. Sentenced to six years' imprisonment in Yeravda jail

63

1923

Wrote Satyagraha in South Africa and part of his autobiography in prison

64

1924

Was operated on for appendicitis and unconditionally released from prison

65

1924 

Began 21-day "great fast" at Mohammed Ali's home near Delhi as penance for communal riots between Hindus andMuslims, especially at Kohat

66

 1924

Presided over Congress session at Belgaum as president

67

1925 

Announced one-year political silence and immobility at Congress session at Cawnpore (Kanpur)

68

1928

Moved compromise resolution at Congress session at Calcutta, calling for complete independence within one year, or else the beginning of another all-Indian satyagraha campaign

69

 1929

Congress session at Lahore declared 'complete independence' and a boycott of the legislature and declared January 26 as National Independence Day

70

1930

Set out from Sabamarti with 79 volunteers on historic salt march 200 miles to sea at Dandi

71

1930 

Broke salt law by picking salt up at seashore

72

 1931

Gandhi-Irwin (Viceroy) Pact signed, Civil Disobedience ended

73

1931 

Attended the second Round Table Conference. Resided at Kingsley Hall in London slums, broadcast to America, visited universities, met celebrities

74

1931 

Traveled to Switzerland, met Romain Rolland, met Mussolini in Italy

75

1932

Arrested in Bombay with Sardar Patel and detained without trial at Yeravda prison

76

1932 

Began "perpetual fast unto death" while in prison in protest of British action giving separate electorates to untouchables

77

1932 

Concluded "epic fast” with historic cell scene in presence of Tagore after British accepted "Poona Pact"

78

1933

Began weekly publication of Harijan in place of Young India

79

1933 

Sentenced to one year's imprisonment at Yeravda. Started a fast against refusal of permission to work against untouchability while in prison; taken to hospital on the fifth day a, unconditionally released on eighth day

80

1933 

Began ten-month tour of every province in India to help end untouchability

81

1933 

Kasturba arrested and imprisoned for sixth time in two years

82

 1934

Fasted at Wardha ashram for seven days against intolerance of opponents of the movement against untouchability

83

1934 

Launched All-India Village Industries Association

84

1940

Launched limited, individual civil-disobedience campaign against Britain's refusal to allow Indians to express their opinions regarding World War II

85

1942 

Met Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi but called his proposals "a post-dated cheque". Proposals were ultimately rejected by Congress

86

 1942

Congress passed "Quit India" resolution - the final nation-wide satyagraha campaign - with Gandhi as leader

87

 1942

Arrested with other Congress leaders and Kasturba and imprisoned at Aga Khan Palace near Poona

88

1943

Began 21-day fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock of negotiations between Viceroy and Indian leaders

89

1944 

After decline in health, was released unconditionally from detention

90

1946

Conferred with British Cabinet Mission in New Delhi

91

 1946

Toured villages in East Bengal to quell communal rioting over Muslim representation in provisional government

92

1947

Toured Bihar to ease Hindu-Muslim tension

93

 1947

Began conferences in New Delhi with Lord Mountbatten

94

 1947

Opposed Congress decision to accept division of country into India and Pakistan

95

 1947

Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence

96

 1947

Fasted for three days to stop communal violence in Calcutta

97

 1947

Visited Delhi to stop rioting and to visit camps of refugees (Hindus and Sikhs from the Punjab)

98

1948

Fasted for five days in Delhi for communal unity

99

 1948

Bomb exploded in midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi

100

 1948

Assassinated in 78th year at Birla House by Nathuram Vinayak Godse