CS Mains Hindi
(Answers must be written in Hindi)
Section A: History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi
- Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
- Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period.
- Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
- Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
- Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
- Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
- The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
- Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
- Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter relationship.
- Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
Section B: History of Hindi Literature
The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
- Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
- Adikal- Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.
- Prominent poets- Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.
- Bhaktikal- Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
- Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
- Ritikal- Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.
- Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.
- Adhunik Kal
- Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
- Prominent Writers: Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
- Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry: Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad, Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
- Prominent Poets: Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
- Adikal- Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.
- Katha Sahitya
- Upanyas & Realism
- The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
- Prominent Novelists: Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
- The origin and development of Hindi short story.
- Prominent short Story Writers: Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.
- Drama & Theatre
- The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
- Prominent Dramatists: Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
- The development of Hindi Theature.
- The origin and development of Hindi criticism: Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
- Prominent critics: Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
- The other forms of Hindi prose- Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.
This paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.
- Kabir: Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis)
- Surdas: Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
- Tulsidas: Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand)
- Jayasi: Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
- Bihari: Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
- Maithili Sharan Gupta: Bharat Bharati
- Prasad: Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
- Nirala: Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta)
- Dinkar: Kurushetra
- Agyeya: Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
- Muktiboth: Brahma Rakshas
- Nagarjun: Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha
- Bharatendu: Bharat Durdasha
- Mohan Rakesh: Ashad Ka Ek Din
- Ramchandra Shukla: Chintamani (Part I) - (Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)
- Dr. Satyendra: Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
- Premchand: Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha - Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai
- Prasad: Skandgupta
- Yashpal: Divya
- Phaniswar Nath Renu: Maila Anchal
- Mannu Bhandari: Mahabhoj
- Rajendra Yadav: Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
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